Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) Politburo
The DFLP is an extreme leftist group led by Nayef Hawatmeh (Abu al-Nuf). It was formed as the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PDFLP) after splitting from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in 1969 following a leadership dispute. It officially became the DFLP in 1974.
Fateh (Palestinian National Liberation Movement)
Fateh is an acronym for Harakat At-Tahrir Al-Watani Al-Filistini, with the first letters in reverse order giving Fateh, which means opening, conquest, victory. It was founded in Kuwait in 1958 by members of the Palestinian diaspora – mainly professionals working in the Gulf States who had been refugees in Gaza. The founders included Yasser Arafat, Salah Khalaf, Khalil al-Wazir and Khaled Yashruti. Fateh was headed by Yasser Arafat until his death in 2004. It aimed to achieve Palestinian independence and advocated armed struggle to liberate Palestinian lands. It held the ideology that Palestine must be liberated by Palestinians themselves and not by relying on Arab states. Fateh advocates a democratic, secular, multi-religious state.
Palestine Democratic Union (FIDA) Politburo
FIDA was established in March 1990 as a split faction of the DFLP. It was headed by Yasser Abed Rabbo, who also represented FIDA in the PLO Executive Committee until 2002, when he resigned and was replaced by Saleh Raafat.
Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)
Hamas is an acronym for Harakat Al-Mouqawama Al-Islamiyya meaning ‘enthusiasm’ or ‘zeal’. It is an Islamic, political and religious movement, founded as an offshoot of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood shortly after the outbreak of the First Intifada in January 1988. Sheikh Ahmad Yassin was the co-founder and spiritual leader alongside Abdel Aziz Rantisi, its main spokesperson. Hamas, during its preliminary stages was tolerated, if not encouraged, by Israeli authorities as counteracting force against the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). It has never been a member of the PLO and has carried out its activities independently from the United National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU) during the First Intifada.
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Politburo
The Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) was established in 1967 by the Arab National Movement and headed by George Habash until his resignation in 2000. It began as a transformation towards a Marxist-Leninist ideology in early 1969. The Organization viewed the struggle for an independent Palestine as part of a larger revolution to transform Arab society along Marxist-Leninist lines.
Palestinian People‘s Party (PPP) Politburo
The PPP (Hizb al-Shaab) is a leftist PLO faction founded in February 1982 in the occupied Palestinian territory (OPT) as the Palestinian Communist Party. The PPP joined the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1987. It broke off from its Marxist-Leninist roots in 1991 and re-established itself under a new foundation as a democratic, pragmatic and popular party. It was a member of the United National Leadership of the Uprising (UNLU) during the First Intifada and played an important role in mobilizing grassroots support for the uprising. The party was supportive of the Oslo Accords.